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Table 2 Analysis by group and order of endoscopy

From: Use of a Low-fidelity simulator to improve trans-nasal fibre-optic flexible laryngoscopy in the clinical setting: a randomized, single-blinded, prospective study

  Control group Simulation group  
Variable First endoscopy mean ± SD (CI) Column A Second endoscopy mean ± SD (CI) Column B First endoscopy mean ± SD (CI) Column C Second endoscopy mean ± SD (CI) Column D ANOVA p value
Time to adequate visualization of the glottis (sec) 92.9 ± 42.60 (78.3 - 107.4) 65.6 ± 30.4 (55.2 - 76.0) 76.7 ± 32.7 (65.5 - 87.8) 70.4 ± 37.0 (57.8 - 83.0) 0.10
Number of mucosal contacts 5.2 ± 4.4 (3.7 - 6.7) 3.2 ± 3.2 (2.1 - 4.3) 4.9 ± 4.9 (3.2 - 6.6) 3.3 ± 2.8 (2.3 - 4.2) 0.77
Percentage of time adequate visualization of the airway was maintained 82.9 ± 16.3 (77.3 – 88.4) 82.4 ± 21.5 (75.1 – 89.8) 77.8 ± 22.4 (70.2 – 85.5) 83.4 ± 17.7 (77.3 – 89.4) 0.38
Learner comfort (self reported)* 4.6 ± 2.0 5.5 ± 1.9 3.9 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 2.0 0.13
Patient comfort (self reported)* 3.27 ± 2.4 3.1 ± 3.0 3.6 ± 3.1 2.9 ± 2.5 0.62
Patient willingness to repeat the examination* 1.6 ± 2.4 1.6 ± 2.9 1.7 ± 2.7 1.5 ± 2.4 0.84
Learner manipulation* 3.6 ± 2.7 5.3 ± 2.7 3.2 ± 2.3 5.9 ± 2.0 0.23
Learner comfort (investigator evaluation)* 3.5 ± 2.5 5.3 ± 2.5 3.1 ± 2.4 5.9 ± 2.2 0.24
Patient comfort (investigator evaluation)* 6.5 ± 2.1 7.1 ± 2.1 6.4 ± 2.5 7.1 ± 2.0 0.92
  1. * = 1 to 10 scale; SD = standard deviation; CI = 95% confidence intervals.