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Table 3 Analysis by order of endoscopy

From: Use of a Low-fidelity simulator to improve trans-nasal fibre-optic flexible laryngoscopy in the clinical setting: a randomized, single-blinded, prospective study

Variable First endoscopy mean ± SD Second endoscopy mean ± SD p value
Time to adequate visualization of the glottis (sec) 84.8 ± 38.0 68 ± 33.9 < 0.01
Number of mucosal contacts 5.0 ± 4.6 3.23 ± 3.0 < 0.01
Percentage of time that adequate visualization of the airway was maintained 80.3 ± 19.6 82.9 ± 19.7 0.38
Learner comfort* (self reported) 4.2 ± 1.9 5.7 ± 2.0 < 0.01
Patient comfort* (self reported) 3.4 ± 2.8 3.0 ± 2.8 0.38
Patient willingness to repeat the examination 1.7 ± 2.6 1.5 ± 2.7 0.79
Learner manipulation (investigator evaluation)* 3.4 ± 2.5 5.6 ± 2.4 < 0.01
Learner comfort (investigator evaluation)* 3.3 ± 2.4 5.6 ± 2.4 < 0.01
Patient comfort (investigator evaluation)* 6.4 ± 2.4 7.1 ± 2.1 0.09
  1. * = 1 to 10 scale; SD = standard deviation.