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Table 1 Mortality and gastropharyngeal anastomosis complications after pharyngo-esophagectomy and gastric pull up

From: Management algorithm for failed gastric pull up reconstruction of laryngopharyngectomy defects: case report and review of the literature

Author year Patients (N) Anastomotic leak Necrosis (%) Anastomotic stricture (%) In-hospital mortality (%) Cause of mortality (N)
Mansour [4] -1990 6 1 (17 %) 0 0 0
El-Naqeeb [5] -1990 24 1 (4 %) 0
Mehta [30] -1990 75 10 (13 %) 7 (9 %) Pulmonary sepsis and respiratory failure (2); PE(1); carotid castrophe(1); MI (2); cirrhosis, ascites, septicemia (1)
Spiro [31] -1991 120 15 (13 %) 5 (4 %) 13 (11 %) Anastomotic leakage, tracheal injury, major arterial bleeding (8); respiratory insufficiency (2); liver failure with sepsis (1); peritonitis after acute pseudomembranous colitis (1); multisystem failure with massive intrapleural bleeding after central venous line injury (1)
Madsen [6] -1992 3 0
Carlson [17] -1992 23 6 (26 %) 0 3 (13 %) 2 (9 %) Ruptured innominate artery after fistula formation (1); MI (1)
Wight [32] -1992 16 3 (19 %) 2 (13 %) Cerebrovascular accident and later dehiscence of the anterior part of the pharyngo-gastric anastomosis (1); fistula between trachea and the subclavian artery (1)
Marmuse [33] -1994 20 1 (5 %) 2 (10 %) MI (2)
Cahow [34] -1994 59 2 (3 %) 1 (2 %) 4 (7 %) 3 (5 %) Thoracic duct injury with pneumothorax, MI, heart failure, cardiogenic shock(1); pneumothorax, pneumonic sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiple organ failure (1); jejunostomy tube displacement, peritonitis and sepsis (1)
Laterza [35] -1994 49 2 (4 %) 2 (4 %) 3 (6 %)
Yoshino [7] -1995 4 0
Bardini [15] -1995 95 22 (23 %) 10 (11 %) 14 (15 %) Anastomotic leak (5); gastric necrosis (4); other (5)
Shenoy [36] -1996 105 15 (14 %) 10 (10 %) 0 16 (15 %) Intraoperative death due to injury to the posterior tracheal wall injury (1); pharyngocutaneous fistula (5); obsturctive pulmonary disease, pneumotitis or septicemia (9)
Axon [18] -1997 29 3 (10 %) 0 1 (3 %) 4 (14 %)
Azurin [19] -1997 19 1 (5 %) 0 2 (11 %) 1 (5 %) Intraoperatively discovered cirrhosis, anastomotic leak, acute liver failure, multiorgan failure (1)
Al Ghamdi [37] -1998 15 6 (40 %) 2 (13 %) 1 (7 %) Fistula leading to bronchopneumonia (1)
Wei [38] -1998 69 6 (9 %) 1 (1 %) 6 (9 %) Gastric fundus necrosis (1); chest infection and cardiac problems (2); recurrent tumor (2); cerbrovascular accident (1)
Dudhat [39] -1999 60 5 (8 %) 0 5 (8 %) Pulmonary sepsis (1); MI (2); carotid blow out secondary to anastomotic leak (1); septicaemia related to anastomotic leak (1)
Hartley [40] -1999 41 1 (2 %) 3 (7 %) Bronchopneumonia (2); hemorrhage(1)
Sullivan [41] -1999 32 10 (32 %) 4 (12 %) Multiorgan failure as a result of uncontrolled neck sepsis due to anastomotic leak and fistula (2); PE (1); MI (1)
Affleck [42] -2000 31 2 (6 %) 3 (10 %)
Martins [43] -2000 30 8 (27 %) 2 (7 %) 6 (20 %) Innominate artery rupture (2); carotid artery rupture (1); pneumonia (1); cardiac arrhythmia (1); pulmpnary embolus (1)
Sagawa [44] -2000 6 1 (17 %) 1 (17 %) 0 1 (17 %) Gastric necrosis leading to arterial bleeding (1)
Jones [45] -2001 50 1 (2 %) 4 (8 %) 1 (2 %)
Triboulet [25]-2001 127 20 (16 %) 2 (2 %) 8 (6 %)
Ullah [46] -2002 26 4 (15 %) 5 (19 %) 3 (12 %) Pneumonia (1); congestive heart failure (1); PE (1)
Wong [8] -2003 12 1 (8 %) 0
Puttawibul [24]-2004 48 4 (8 %) 1 (2 %) 1 (2 %) Fundal necrosis, localized infection and carotid artery blow out(1)
Rossi [9] -2005 4 0 0 0 0
Clark [22] -2006 21 10 (48 %) 5 (24 %) 6 (29 %)  
Llorente Pendas [14] -2006 12 6 (50 %) 4 (33 %) Cervical Fistual and Sepsis (2); subphrenic abscess (1); general deterioration and multiple organ failure (1)
Pesko [20] -2006 29 5 (17 %) 0 3 (10 %) Anastomotic leak and systemic sepsis (3)
Daiko [47] -2007 19 2 (11 %) 2 (11 %) 2 (11 %) Necrosis of the stomach (1)
Iseli [10] -2007 7 0 0 0
Krdžalić [11] -2007 4 1 (25 %) 0
Ferahkose [48] -2008 38 1 (3 %) 2 (5 %) 0 2 (5 %) Gastric necrsosis with sepsis (2)
Keereweer [3] -2010 19 10 (53 %) 2 (11 %) 3 (16 %) Gastric necrosis and respiratory failure (1); mediastinal hemorrhage (1); carotid blow out (1)
Mansour [12] -2011 5 0
Shuangba [16] -2011 208 19 (9 %) 7 (3 %) 4 (2 %) Pneumonitis(1); heart failure(2); hemoperitoneum(1)
Tong [49] -2011 70 4 (6 %) 3 (4 %) 3 (4 %) Pneumonia (3)
Camaioni [50] -2012 23 2 (9 %) 2 (9 %)
Sreehariprasad [51] - 2012 17 1 (6 %) 0
Joshi [52] -2013 32 5 (16 %) 6 (19 %)
Lambert [13] -2013 9 1 (11 %) 0
Sayles [53] -2013 19 9 (47 %)
Denewer [21] -2014 32 5 (16 %) 0 3 (9 %)
Sun [54] -2014 48 4 (8 %)