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Table 1 Distance measurements between groups (*p < 0.05) (n: number of children in each group)

From: The effect of adenoid hypertrophy on maxillofacial development: an objective photographic analysis

Distances (mean ± SD) (mm) Group 1
(n = 90)
Group 2a
(n = 50)
Group 2b
(n = 35)
Group 2c
(n = 12)
P value
vertex and trichion (v-tr) 49.9 ± 9.9 48,7 ± 11,1 52,5 ± 12,4 51,2 ± 10,3 0.435
vertex and glabella (v-g) 106 ± 14 105,8 ± 16 110,2 ± 15 103,8 ± 9,9 0.421
vertex and nasion (v-n) 123.1 ± 14.1 120,3 ± 15,2 124,8 ± 16,4 118,9 ± 9,2 0.415
trichion and glabella (tr-g) 56,9 ± 8,5 57,5 ± 8,3 58,3 ± 9,4 53,7 ± 6,1 0.431
trichion and nasion (tr-n) 73,4 ± 10,1 72,4 ± 8,6 71,3 ± 11,6 68,8 ± 6,7 0.421
nasion and tip (n-t) 36,7 ± 5,8 39,4 ± 6,6 39,7 ± 7,6 37,9 ± 5,4 0.035*
nasion and subnasale (n-sn) 46,8 ± 5,9 49,5 ± 6,4 48,2 ± 7,1 46,9 ± 5,8 0.101
subnasale and stomion (sn-st) 23,8 ± 2,1 21,6 ± 3,1 21,5 ± 3,3 20,2 ± 2,8 0.741
subnasale and gnathion (sn-gn) 59,2 ± 8,2 60,3 ± 8,9 58,9 ± 8,3 55,4 ± 10,6 0.373
endocanthion and exocanthion (en-ex) 31 ± 3,1 30,9 ± 3,2 30,3 ± 3,3 28,3 ± 2,5 0.036*
ala and ala (ala-ala) 36,7 ± 4,2 36,4 ± 4,3 35,9 ± 3,9 33,8 ± 3,1 0.137
angulus oris and angulus oris (an-an) 48 ± 6,2 48,1 ± 7 46,7 ± 7,3 43,5 ± 5,6 0.116
zygion and zygion (zy-zy) 100,1 ± 13,2 101,5 ± 8,1 100,5 ± 9,4 96,7 ± 6,1 0.590
superaurale and subaurale (sa-sba) 56,4 ± 5,6 54,4 ± 9,2 56,5 ± 6,6 53 ± 5,4 0.174
glabella and subnasale (g-sn) 57,3 ± 6,3 59 ± 5,8 56,2 ± 6 58,2 ± 5 0.196
tip and ala (t-ala) 23 ± 2,7 23,5 ± 3,1 23,7 ± 2,4 21,6 ± 2,9 0.121
tragion and angulus mandible (tra-anm) 53,5 ± 7,1 52,5 ± 6,1 51 ± 7,2 50,7 ± 7,6 0.237