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Table 4 Mixed effects linear regression models for EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck Module (EORTC-H&N35)

From: Functional and quality of life outcomes after partial glossectomy: a multi-institutional longitudinal study of the head and neck research network

Subscale (n) Variable Estimate 95% CI SE t p SDs of Random Effects
Intercept Residual
Pain (n = 109) Baseline 36.54 32.1 to 40.9 2.26 16.20   17.30 14.30
1 month −13.22 −8.7 to −17.8 2.32 −5.70 <.001*   
6 month −15.73 −11.0 to −21.0 2.40 −6.55 <.001*   
1 year −16.07 −11.0 to −20.4 2.55 −6.29 <.001*   
Swallowing (n = 109) Baseline 11.63 6.1 to 17.2 2.86 4.07   12.58 16.70
Sx-RT +6.81 −1.0 to +14.7 4.00 1.70 .092   
Sx-CRT +10.36 +3.1 to +17.7 3.70 2.80 .006   
1 month +10.12 +4.9 to +15.4 2.66 3.80 <.001*   
6 month +5.46 0 to +10.8 2.76 1.98 .049   
1 year +1.06 −4.7 to +6.9 2.93 .36 .719   
Senses (n = 109) Baseline 16.12 11.4 to 20.9 2.39 6.73   17.99 15.54
1 month +1.57 −3.4 to +6.6 2.51 .63 .533   
6 month +8.92 +3.8 to +14.2 2.60 3.43 <.001*   
1 year +2.24 −3.1 to +7.8 2.77 .81 .419   
Speech (n = 108) Baseline 19.93 15.9 to 24.1 2.09 9.53   12.96 15.73
1 month +3.64 −1.4 to +8.6 2.51 1.45 .149   
6 month +2.78 −2.5 to +7.7 2.62 1.04 .302   
1 year −.68 −6.1 to +4.8 2.77 −.25 .806   
Eating (n = 108) Baseline 20.50 13.2 to 27.8 3.69 5.55   15.78 21.84
Sx-RT +8.76 −1.2 to +18.8 5.13 1.71 .091   
Sx-CRT +14.25 +5.0 to 23.3 4.74 3.01 .003*   
1 month +2.19 −4.6 to +9.1 3.47 .63 .528   
6 month +3.12 −4.0 to +10.3 3.63 .86 .392   
1 year −2.95 −10.3 to +4.6 3.85 −.77 .445   
Social Contact (n = 108) Baseline 10.47 6.7 to 14.4 1.96 5.33   13.09 14.06
1 month +4.26 −.2 to +8.8 2.26 1.89 .060   
6 month +3.97 −.6 to +8.5 2.35 1.69 .092   
1 year +3.94 −.8 to +8.8 2.49 1.59 .114   
Sexuality (n = 105) Baseline 26.11 19.5 to 32.9 3.40 7.68   22.52 23.45
1 month +1.71 −6.1 to +9.5 3.93 .44 .664   
6 month +.51 −7.6 to +8.4 4.07 .13 .901   
1 year −7.38 −15.9 to +1.3 4.30 −1.71 .088   
Teeth (n = 109) Baseline 23.38 17.2 to 29.6 3.20 7.30   16.92 26.13
1 month −3.39 −11.5 to +4.9 4.19 −.81 .419   
6 month −1.96 −10.3 to +6.5 4.30 −.46 .649   
1 year +.24 −8.8 to +9.3 4.64 .05 .958   
Open Mouth (n = 109) Baseline 14.65 7.4 to 21.9 3.71 3.94   14.56 23.62
Sx-RT +2.24 −7.6 to +12.0 5.05 .44 .659   
Sx-CRT +14.59 +5.5 to +23.7 4.68 3.12 .002*   
1 month +12.42 +5.2 to +19.6 3.71 3.35 <.001*   
6 month +11.30 +3.7 to +18.9 3.88 2.92 .004   
1 year +2.86 −5.3 to +11.0 4.13 .69 .490   
Dry Mouth (n = 109) Baseline 28.91 19.2 to 38.5 4.93 5.86   18.26 24.89
Sx-RT −15.39 −31.2 to +.6 8.05 −1.91 .057   
Sx-CRT −6.05 −20.4 to +8.4 7.32 −.83 .409   
1 m x Sx +8.23 −4.0 to +20.1 6.13 1.34 .180   
6 m x Sx +5.08 −7.4 to +17.5 6.39 .80 .428   
1y x Sx +6.16 −7.1 to +20.0 6.87 .90 .371   
1 m x Sx-RT +3.83 −15.5 to +23.7 10.11 .38 .705   
6 m x Sx-RT +42.18 +22.5 to +62.9 10.18 4.14 <.001*   
1y x Sx-RT +35.27 +13.7 to +56.9 10.96 3.22 .001*   
1 m x Sx-CRT +14.88 −3.0 to +32.5 9.12 1.63 .104   
6 m x Sx-CRT +36.45 +17.8 to +55.0 9.63 3.79 <.001*   
1y x Sx-CRT +33.03 +13.0 to +52.6 10.18 3.25 .001*   
Sticky Saliva (n = 109) Baseline 25.74 19.3 to 32.3 3.34 7.72   18.80 26.18
1 month +7.69 −.7 to +15.8 4.17 1.85 .066   
6 month +15.30 +6.7 to +23.9 4.35 3.53 <.001*   
1 year +15.34 +6.2 to +24.5 4.63 3.33 .001*   
Cough (n = 109) Baseline 17.74 13.4 to 22.0 2.20 8.05   12.20 17.56
1 month +3.82 −1.4 to +9.2 2.78 1.38 .170   
6 month +6.28 +.5 to +12.0 2.90 2.16 .032   
1 year −3.08 −9.2 to +3.00 3.08 −1.00 .318   
  1. Note. *p < .0028; Models with treatment, time, and treatment x time interaction: Baseline = pre-operative mean estimate for surgery only group; Sx-RT/Sx-CRT = difference between pre-operative mean scores and baseline for surgery and radiotherapy, and, surgery and chemoradiotherapy groups, respectively; 1 m/6 m/1y x Sx/Sx-RT/Sx-CRT = difference between mean subscale scores and baseline at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-operation, respectively, for the surgery only, surgery and radiotherapy, and, surgery and chemoradiotherapy groups, respectively; Models with treatment and time (no interaction term): Baseline = pre-operative mean estimate for surgery only group; Sx-RT,/Sx-CRT = difference between pre-operative mean scores and baseline for surgery and radiotherapy, and, surgery and chemoradiotherapy groups, respectively; 1 month/6 months/1 year = difference between mean subscale scores and baseline for respective assessment time point for combined cohort; Models with time variable only: Baseline = pre-operative mean estimate for subscale scores for combined cohort; 1 month/6 months/1 year = difference between mean subscale scores and baseline for respective assessment time point for combined cohort; p-value for baseline scores not provided given that it tests the hypothesis that the baseline mean is significantly different from 0, results of which are not clinically meaningful; 95% CI calculated using bootstrapping approach