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Table 1 Endoscopic repair patient demographics, techniques used, success rates, follow-up and complication rates

From: Bilateral Piriform sinus fistulas: a case study and review of management options

Author Year Number of Patients Patient Age Patient Gender Technique Success rate Duration of follow-up Complication rate
Shrime [29] 2003 1 1d F CC with silver nitrate 100% 100% (Transient vocal cord palsy)
Cigliano [12] 2004 1 9 F FS repeated at short term interval three times 100% 15 m 0%
Ahmed [14] 2008 3 3-9y 1 M
2F
Secondary EC following failed surgical excision 100% 9-13 m 0%
Pereira [8] 2008 2 2-18y 2 M CC with silver nitrate 100% 2y 0%
Chen [13] 2009 9 3-16y 1 M
8F
EC +/− polyglactin sutures 78% 7 m-8y 0%
Miyauchi [30] 2009 12 14-31y 2 M
10F
CC with 30% TCA 83% 4-21 m 0%
Leboulanger [15] 2010 19 1d-18y 2 EC
13 CO2 Laser
4 Thulium laser
68% 6 m-5y 0%
Bajaj [16] 2011 3 <1y EC 100% 6w 0%
Zhang [21] 2012 1 15y M CC 0% 5y 0%
Cha [9] 2013 44 31 CC with 20-40% TCA
13 Secondary CC with TCA following failed surgical excision
77% 18 m-18y 0%
Park [20] 2013 2 13 m-5y 1 M
1F
CC with 30% TCA 100% 7-18 m 100% (Transient vocal cord palsy)
Watson [17] 2013 5 2-12y 1 M
4F
1 EC
2 CO2 Laser
2 CC with silver nitrate
100% 11-41 m 0%
Parida [19] 2014 3 11-12y 1 M
2F
2 CC with silver nitrate
1 Secondary CC with silver nitrate following failed surgical excision
100% 2-3y 0%
Sun [11] 2014 22 6 m-14y 7 M
15F
EC 91% 1 m-14y 0%
Wong [28] 2014 2 10-14y 1 M
1F
1 EC
1 Secondary EC following failed surgical excision
50% 4y 50% (mild hoarseness that resolved within 2 weeks)
Hwang [24] 2015 13 1.5-15y 9 M
4F
CC with 20% TCA 54% 5.5y (median) 0%
Josephson [1] 2015 1 7y F CO2 laser with chromic suture 100% 4y 0%
Kamide [18] 2015 1 20y F Electrocauterization 100% 1y 0%
Abbas [25] 2016 1 12y F Electrocauterization 100% 22 m 0%
Di Nardo [22] 2016 1 3y F Secondary Glubran 2 sealing following 4 failed surgical excisions 100% 6y 0%
Huang [27] 2016 5 5-7y 3 M
2F
KTP laser assisted EC with FS 80% 7-36 m 0%
Matsuzaki [26] 2016 2 9-26y 1 M
1F
Endoscopic partial resection with polydioxanone suture 100% 1-2y 0%
Zhang [23] 2016 42 11 EC
31 Coblation cauterization
88% 2-40 m 7% (temporary hoarseness)
  1. EC electrocauterization, CC Chemocauterization, FS fibrin sealent, TCA trichloroacetic acid, M male, F female, m month, y years