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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of metformin use and non-use groups

From: Does metformin usage improve survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? A population-based study

Variable Category Cases (Metformin at time of diagnosis) “Controls” (No metformin for ≥ 1 year prior and ≥ 1 year after diagnosis) P-value
N   165 1066  
Age
  65–69 38 (23.0%) 280 (26.3%) 0.874
70–74 49 (29.7%) 289 (27.1%)  
75–79 44 (26.7%) 257 (24.1%)  
80–84 25 (15.2%) 168 (15.8%)  
85–90 6 (3.6%) 52 (4.9%)  
= > 90 3 (1.8%) 20 (1.9%)  
Mean age at diagnosis (± SD)   74.55 ± 6.09 74.51 ± 6.35 0.934
Elixhauser Comorbidity Index Score
  0 43 (26.1%) 637 (59.8%) < 0.001
1 40 (24.2%) 197 (18.5%)  
2 30 (18.2%) 96 (9.0%)  
3+ 52 (31.5%) 136 (12.8%)  
Gender
  Female 24 (14.5%) 175 (16.4%) 0.543
Male 141 (85.5%) 891 (83.6%)  
Treatment type
  Surgery+/−RT/CRT 31 (18.8%) 266 (25.0%) 0.058
RT+/-Surgery 116 (70.3%) 646 (60.6%)  
CRT+/-Surgery 18 (10.9%) 154 (14.4%)  
Primary site
  Glottic larynx 105 (63.6%) 656 (61.5%) 0.406
Hypopharynx 17 (10.3%) 152 (14.3%)  
Nasopharynx 12 (7.3%) 55 (5.2%)  
Supraglottic larynx 31 (18.8%) 203 (19.0%)  
  1. SD Standard deviation, RT radiotherapy, CRT concurrent chemoradiotherapy