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Table 1 Socio-demographic and medical characteristics

From: Effect of preoperative immunonutrition on complications after salvage surgery in head and neck cancer

Characteristics Total
n = 96
Control
n = 45
Intervention
n = 51
p-value
Mean age, years (SD) 65.4 (10.56) 65.4 (10.0) 65.5 (11.1) 0.97
Gender
 Male 76 (79%) 35 (78%) 41 (80%) 0.75
 Female 20 (21%) 10 (22%) 10 (20%)
Smoking
 No 24 (25%) 11 (24%) 13 (25%) 0.11
 Active 33 (34%) 20 (44%) 13 (25%)
 Ceased 39 (41%) 14 (31%) 25 (49%)
 Smoking (pack years), median (IQR) 45 (30, 60) 47.5 (30, 68) 42.5 (38, 60) 0.88
Alcohol
 No 43 (45%) 20 (44%) 23 (45%) 0.99
 Active 42 (44%) 20 (44%) 22 (43%)
 Ceased 11 (11%) 5 (11%) 6 (12%)
Alcohol (glass/week), median (IQR) 14 (6,42) 18 (4,70) 14 (6,40) 0.53
Body mass index at admission, mean (SD) 23.29 (3.95) 23.84 (3.84) 22.80 (4.03) 0.21
Nutritional Risk Screening 200224
Score< 3 78 (81%) 40 (89%) 38 (75%) 0.21
Score≥ 3 18 (19%) 5 (11%) 13 (25%)
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 10 (10%) 6 (13%) 4 (8%) 0.38
 Hepatopancreatic disease 6 (6%) 2 (45) 4 (8%) 0.49
 Cardiovascular disease 57 (59%) 25 (56%) 32 (63%) 0.47
 Pulmonary disease 16 (17%) 7 (16%) 9 (18%) 0.78
 Other diseases 25 (26%) 8 (18%) 17 (33%) 0.08
Immunosuppression (drug induced) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 0.35
Type of tumor
 Persistence/recurrence 76 (79%) 34 (76%) 42 (82%) 0.41
 Second primaries 20 (21%) 11 (24%) 9 (18%)
Localization
 Oral cavity 30 (31%) 18 (40%) 12 (24%) 0.35
 Oropharynx 20 (21%) 7 (16%) 13 (25%)
 Hypopharynx 9 (9%) 5 (11%) 4 (8%)
 Larynx 25 (26%) 11 (24%) 14 (27%)
 Lymph node recurrence 12 (13%) 4 (9%) 8 (16%)
UICC-stage of recurrent/persistent tumors and second primaries
 I 21 (22%) 11 (24%) 10 (20%) 0.55
 II 25 (26%) 12 (27%) 13 (25%)
 III 21 (22%) 7 (16%) 14 (27%)
 IV 29 (30%) 15 (33%) 14 (27%)
Type of surgery
 Restricted 44 (46%) 17 (38%) 27 (53%) 0.14
 Extensive 52 (54%) 28 (62%) 24 (47%)
Flap reconstruction
 No 58 (60%) 30 (67%) 28 (55%) 0.24
 Yes 38 (40%) 15 (33%) 23 (45%)
Tracheostomy
 Yes 25 (11%) 15 (33%) 10 (20%) 0.16
 No 71 (89%) 30 (66%) 41 (80%)
Long-term tracheostomy after surgery > 30 days
 Yes 11 (11%) 7 (16%) 4 (8%) 0.33
 No 85 (89%) 38 (84%) 47 (92%)
Feeding modality before surgery
 Oral 79 (82%) 38 (84%) 41 (80%) 0.42
 NG tube 1 (1%) 1 (2%) 0 (0%)
 PEG tube 16 (17%) 6 (13%) 10 (205)
Feeding modality after surgery
 Oral 29 (30%) 12 (27%) 17 (33%) 0.28
 NG tube 43 (45%) 24 (53%) 19 (37%)
 PEG tube 24 (25%) 9 (20%) 15 (29%)
Peri−/postoperative antibiotic treatment
 Yes 92 (96%) 43 (96%) 49 (96%) 0.90
 No 4 (4%) 2 (4%) 2 (4%)
Duration (days) of peri−/postoperative antibiotic treatment, median (IQR) 12 (10, 16.5) 12 (10, 19) 13 (11, 15) 0.82
Maximum RT dose to operative field (Gray), median (IQR) 70 (66,72) 67 (61, 72) 72 (66, 72) 0.09
Time RT to surgery (days), median (IQR) 524 (231,1645) 874 (311, 1993) 436 (202, 1276) 0.05
  1. IQR interquartile range, NG nasogastric, PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, RT radiotherapy, SD standard deviation, UICC Union of International Cancer Control [24]