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Table 2 The face validity scores by otolaryngologists and resident trainees

From: Assessment of a virtual reality temporal bone surgical simulator: a national face and content validity study

Face Validity
Domains Junior Trainees (PGY 1–2) Senior Trainees (PGY 3+) Low-volume Surgeons (0–10 Mastoids/year) High-volume Surgeons (> 10 Mastoids/year) p-value*
Realistic Appearance of Anatomy A A A SA ns
Realistic Appearance of Drill A SA A SA ns
Realistic Performance of Drill A A A A ns
Realistic Haptic Feedback N A A N ns
Realistic Ergonomics N/A A A D 0.022
Realistic Depth Perception A A A A ns
Realistic Overall Graphics Quality A A A/SA A ns
  1. SA = Strongly Agree, A = Agree, N=Neutral, D = Disagree, ns = not significant
  2. * chi-sqaure test, p ≤ 0.05 considered significant