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Table 4 The associations of epidemiological factors with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae MEF positive samples in children with OME

From: Bacterial aetiology of chronic otitis media with effusion in children - risk factors

CharacteristicsS. pneumoniaeH. influenzae
OR (95%CI)p valueOR (95%CI)p value
Age (yr)1.7 (0.9–3.0)0.0880.9 (0.5–1.5)0.60
Male sex5.1 (0.6–44.9)0.140.4 (0.1–1.5)0.19
Good social status5.3 (1.0–28.6)0.0550.9 (0.2–3.6)0.91
Rural residence1.4 (0.3–6.0)0.660.8 (0.2–3.0)0.70
Parental smoking2.5 (0.6–11.1)0.233.8 (0.9–14.8)0.06
Breastfeeding0.05 (0.005–0.6)0.014
Cesarean childbirth1.8 (0.4–7.6)0.440.6 (0.1–2.2)0.40
Bilateral OME0.16 (0.02–1.4)0.0978.4 (1.9–37.4)0.005
Duration of symptoms1.0 (0.99–1.0)0.891.0 (0.99–1.0)0.46
Frequent URTI2.6 (0.3–23.2)0.400.8 (0.2–3.7)0.77
Snoring0.3 (0.07–1.3)0.110.9 (0.2–3.7)0.91
Allergy0.7 (0.08–6.9)0.780.5 (0.05–4.5)0.52
Pneumococcal vaccination1.9 (0.4–8.5)0.381.8 (0.5–6.7)0.41