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Table 1 Surveillance options for IP malignant transformation

From: Clinical evidence based review and systematic scientific review in the identification of malignant transformation of inverted papilloma

Clinical investigation optionsEndoscopy
Computed Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
PET-CT with FDG
Biologic markersGenetic factors (P53, P21, MSX2, PDCD4, KRAS, PTEN)
Proteins (SCCa, fascin, surviving, COX-2, cell adhesion molecules, Ki-67 etc)
Viral (HPV, EBV)