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Table 1 Surveillance options for IP malignant transformation

From: Clinical evidence based review and systematic scientific review in the identification of malignant transformation of inverted papilloma

Clinical investigation optionsEndoscopy
Computed Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Biologic markersGenetic factors (P53, P21, MSX2, PDCD4, KRAS, PTEN)
Proteins (SCCa, fascin, surviving, COX-2, cell adhesion molecules, Ki-67 etc)
Viral (HPV, EBV)