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Table 10 Characteristics of included studies on nebulizers/atomizers

From: Clinical evidence based review and recommendations of aerosol generating medical procedures in otolaryngology – head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Author, yearStudy DesignLevel of EvidenceSubjects (n)Study GroupsStudy outcomesConclusionDirectness of evidence
Tseng, 2014 [52]Experimental studyN/A15Healthy subjectsBacterial contamination of atomizer nozzle tip (bacterial cultures).1. 18 out of 30 samples (60%) were positive for bacterial growth at the atomizer tip.
2. During the spray process, aerosols were noted traveling backwards through the reversed jet flow and attaching to the nozzle tip, contaminating the tip.