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Table 4 Characteristics of included studies on CO2 laser ablation

From: Clinical evidence based review and recommendations of aerosol generating medical procedures in otolaryngology – head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Author, yearStudy DesignLevel of EvidenceSubjects (n)Study GroupsStudy outcomesConclusionDirectness of evidence
Genangeli, 2019 [18]Experimental studyN/AN/ADifferent tissues, non-humanMass spectrometry of air sample obtained using CO2 laser on different tissuesCO2 lasers can generate aerosols with detectable molecular profiles for all tissues testedDirect
Kashima, 1991 [20]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A22Patients with recurrent respiratory laryngeal papillomatosisPCR of air samples for HPV DNA1. 17/30 vapor samples were positive for HPV. 14 paired tissue and vapor samples revealed the same HPV type.
2. HPV-DNA in the vapor can be of concern to the operating team.
Garden, 1988 [21]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A7Patients with plantar or mosaic verrucaeElectrophoresis and visualization of HPV DNA in air samples1. Intact human papillomavirus DNA was present in the vapor for two of the seven patients.
2. Viral DNA can be released during the laser treatment for verrucae, even with clinically relevant laser parameter settings.
Sawchuk, 1989 [22]Experimental studyN/A8Human plantar wartsDot-blot analysis of HPV DNA in air samplesFive of eight laser-derived vapors were positive for HPV DNA.Direct
Gloster, 1995 [23]Case control study431/6124CO2 laser surgeons and patients with wartsIncidence of HPV lesions in CO2 laser surgeonsThe overall incidence of acquired HPV warts, was not significantly different from the incidence of control patients. However, the incidence of nasopharyngeal warts was higher in CO2 laser surgeons (13%) compared to the control population (0.6%).Indirect
  1. PCR polymerase chain reaction
  2. HPV Human papilloma virus
  3. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid