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Table 8 Characteristics of included studies on oropharyngeal surgeries and dental procedures

From: Clinical evidence based review and recommendations of aerosol generating medical procedures in otolaryngology – head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Author, yearStudy DesignLevel of EvidenceSubjects (n)Study GroupsStudy outcomesConclusionDirectness of evidence
Ishihama, 2010 [27]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A54Patients undergoing head and neck surgeries.Blood-contaminated aerosols in OR air conduction filtersSurgical procedures using electrocautery and high-speed rotating instruments can result in aerosolization of blood.Direct
Ishihama, 2009 [42]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A100Patients undergoing third molar removalBlood-contaminated aerosols in air samplesAt 20 cm: 76% particles were blood contaminated, at 100 cm: 57%. Blood aerosols can be generated during oral surgery with high speed instrumentsDirect
Ishihama, 2008 [43]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A25Patients undergoing third molar removalBlood-contamination of mask, visor and gownDental procedures with high-speed instruments exposed surgeons to possible blood-borne infections by splashing in nearly 90% of cases; blood splatters were confirmed in 84% of cases and 76% of visor masksIndirect
Al-Eid, 2018 [44]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A30Patients undergoing third molar removalBlood-contamination of mask, visor and gownBlood contamination was present for 100% of facemasks and gloves, 87% of protective eyewear, 73% of surgical gownsIndirect
Hallier, 2010 [45]Descriptive, cross sectional studyN/A8Patients undergoing dental proceduresBacterial growth, caused by aerosol contamination, sampled 20 cm from dental chair.Oral examination, tooth extraction, oral cavity preparation and ultrasonic scaling produce pathogen containing aerosols, which can form bacteria coloniesDirect
Perdelli, 2008 [46]Experimental studyN/A132Patients undergoing dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery in the OR and experimental during autopsyHemoglobin concentration in air samples from dental cubicles, MFS operating room and autopsy roomHemoglobin concentrations in air samples were highest in dental operations and lowest during autopsy proceduresIndirect
  1. OR operative room
  2. MFS maxillofacial surgery