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Table 9 Characteristics of included studies on mastoid surgery

From: Clinical evidence based review and recommendations of aerosol generating medical procedures in otolaryngology – head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Author, yearStudy DesignLevel of EvidenceSubjects (n)Study GroupsStudy outcomesConclusionDirectness of evidence
Norris, 2011 [49]Experimental studyN/A3 Temporal bonesRespiratory airway, mannequin modelConcentration of particular matter in three conditions: without a mask, with a surgical mask, with an N95 respiratorThe average concentration of bone dust particles with standard surgical masks was 1.66 mg/m3, compared with undetectable (< 0.81 mg/m3) with the use of an N95 respirator.Indirect
Hilal, 2005 [50]Experimental studyN/A6 temporal bones 1.Penetration of bone dust and particulates onto the corneal surface of fish eyes placed 50 cm and 1 m away
2. bone dust scattering radius
All corneas examined (up to 1 m away) had numerous bone particles penetrating the corneal surface. In vivo, bone dust scatters 106 cm in all directions.Indirect
Lannigan, 1989 [51]Experimental studyN/AUnknown Maximum radius of black fluid spray of various drill speedsMaximum radius of spray was 41 cm with a drill at 40,000 RPM.Indirect
  1. RPM revolutions per minute