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Table 1 Summary of the literature review

From: Cervicofacial and mediastinal emphysema following minor dental procedure: a case report and review of the literature

Reference Age (years) / Sex Procedure / tooth (#) Suspected cause Timing of SC emphysema Imaging modality/ air in mediastinum or intrathoracic Labs Hospitalization (#days)/Treatment
Arai & al. (2009) [4] 40/F Extraction/ 48 HS 1 day CT / - N 5 days / Ampicillin
Parkar & al. (2009) [5] 55/F Endodontic treatment/ left upper molar HS 1 h XR/ - N 1 day / corticosteroids + anti-histaminic + antibiotics
Samuels (2009) [6] 20/F Extraction/ left lower molar HS Immediate XR/ + N admitted / corticosteroids + analgesia + antibiotics
Kim & al. (2010) [7] 40/M Endodontic treatment / 36 HS Immediate CT / + N 5 days / O2 + antibiotics
Kim & al. (2010) [7] 52/F Endodontic treatment / 16 HS Per-procedure CT /+ N 8 days / antibiotics
Sainsbury & Jaiganesh (2010) [8] 40/M Endodontic treatment / 27 HS Per-procedure XR / - N < 1 day (14 h) / O2 + AmoxiClav
Afzali & al. (2010) [9] 16/M Extraction / 37 HS 1 day XR + CT / + WBC 21000 5 days / IV Clinda and ceftazidime
Hsu (2010) [10] 59/F Endodontic treatment / 38 + 48 HS 1 h CT /− N Antibiotics
Bilecenoglu & al. (2012) [11] 39/F Extraction / 46 HS 1 day N N/A / analgesia + antibiotics
Durukan & al. (2012) [12] 45/F Endodontic treatment / 16 AS + HS Immediate XR+ CT/ + N 3 days/ O2 + metronidazole+ ampicillin
Bergen (2013) [13] 72/F RDP / molar HS Per-procedure XR / - N N/A / Amoxi Clav
Elia & al.(2013) [14] 41/F Extraction/ 47 HS Per-procedure CT/ + N 7 days/ analgesia + antibiotics
Khandelwal & al. (2013) [15] 4,5/F Crown preparation / 16 AS + HS 1 h - / Amoxicillin
Mitsunaga & al.(2013) [16] 76/F Laser treatment / 26 Laser Immediate CT / + 5 days / antibiotics
Olate & al. (2013) [17] 23/F Extraction / 48 HS 4 h CT/ - admitted / analgesia + chlorexidine mouth wash + Cefazolin
An & al. (2014) [18] 33/F Endodontic treatment/ 44 AS Per-procedure CT/+ N 5 days / steroids + IV fluids + O2 + clindamycin and switch to ampicillin + metronidazole
Fleischman & al. (2014) [19] 15/F Extraction / 28 ? Immediate CT/ - N/A / attempt to decompress the eyelid (30G needle) + antibiotics
Kün-Darbois & al. (2014) [20] 41/F Extraction / 38 HS Per-procedure CT / + WBC 10370 2 days / -
Paik & al. (2014) [21] 13/M RDP / 36 HS Immediate CT /+ 1 day / -
Nishimura & al. (2015) [22] 68/M RDP /? HS 1 day XR + CT / + N N/A / antibiotics
Picard & al. (2015) [23] 27/M Extraction / 48 HS 4 days CT / + 4 days / antibiotics
Ocakcioglu & al. (2015) [24] 23/M Extraction / 48 HS 7 days CT / + 4 days / O2 + antibiotics
Alonso & al.(2017) [25] 73/F Peri-implant cleaning / 4? AP Immediate CT / - N/A / corticosteroids + antibiotics
Alonso & al.(2017) [25] 43/M Dental cleaning / 42–43 AP Immediate XR / + < 1 day (12 h) / -
Alonso & al.(2017) [25] 62/F Dental cleaning / 47 AP Immediate CT / - N/A / Ibuprofen + antibiotics
Lee & al. (2017) [26] 59/F RDP / 44 HS Immediate XR + CT/ + N 8 days / O2 + ampicillin + TMP SMX
Ramnarine & Dubin (2017) [27] 28/F RDP / 14 + 20 + 21 HS Immediate XR + CT/+ N <  1 day (12 h) / antibiotics
Tan & Nikolarakos (2017) [28] 33/F Extraction / 46 HS 1 day XR / - WBC 10000 2 days / analgesia + antibiotics
Thompson & Gohil (2017) [29] 50/M Extraction / 38 ? 4–6 h XR / + N Admitted/ saline nebulisers + antibiotics
Chien (2018) [30] 59/F RDP / 44 + 46 HS Immediate N/A / antibiotics
Jeong & al. (2018) [31] 60/F Crown preparation / 15 HS 1 h XR + CT/ + N 4 days / O2 + antibiotics
Lee & al.(2018) [32] 51/F Peri-implant cleaning / 12 AS Per-procedure XR + CT/ + N 13 days / O2 + analgesia + antibiotics
Liu & Lin (2018) [33] 22/M Extraction / 38 ? 1 week XR + CT/ + Elevated CRP + WBC Admitted /Amoxi-Clav
Tay & Loh(2018) [34] 18/M Extraction / 18 + 28 + 38 + 48 HS 1 day XR + CT/ + 5 days/ O2 + antibiotics
Tenore & al. (2017) [35] 60/F Endodontic treatment / 22 AS Per-procedure CT / - Admitted / corticosteroid + analgesia + antibiotics
Cuccia & al [36]. 30/F Extraction / 37 HS Immediate CT / + N 7 days / corticosteroids + tazocin/cubicin + bed rest
Fehrle & al [37]. 32/M Extraction / 48 ? Weeks CT / + CRP 75 Admitted / antibiotics
Mascarenhas & al [38]. 43/M RDP / 47 HS Immediate XR / - N/A / Amoxicilin
Paschos & al [39]. 17/F Extraction / 38 HS 30 min CT / + N 3 days / antibiotics
Rad et & [40]. 36/M Extraction / 37 HS Immediate XR / + N N/A / antibiotics
Rawlinson & al [41]. 40/F RDP / upper and lower molar ? 1 day CT / + WBC 12500 1 day / antibiotics
  1. F Female, M Male, RDP restorative dental procedure, HS High speed handpiece, AP Air polishing, AS air syringe, XR X-Ray, CT computed tomography scan, WBC white blood cell count, CRP C-Reactive protein, HBP High blood pressure, SC subcutaneous, N normal