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Table 4 Immunologic characteristics of acute exacerbations in CRSwNP

From: Definition and characteristics of acute exacerbation in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: a systematic review

Author/year Study groups Immunologic characteristics Level of evidence
Divekar, et al. (2015) [14] CRSwNP (n = 9) Significant increase of nasal IL-5、IL-6 and eosinophil major basic protein.
Significant increase of serum VEGF and GM-CSF.
4
Rank, et al. (2013) [16] CRSwNP (n = 10) Significant increase of nasal IL-6, MBP, MPO, EDN and uric acid. 4
Mueller, et al. (2019) [24] CRSwNP (n = 5) Significant higher level of CST2 and periostin. 4
Ninomiya et al. (2018) [25] ECRSwNP (n = 6) Significant higher level of serum periostin. 4
Xu, et al. (2017) [26] ECRSwNP (n = 30) Significant higher level of serum periostin. 2c
Kato, et al. (2018) [27] ECRSwNP (n = 51) Significant higher level of CST1. 2c
Yan, et al. (2019) [28] ECRSwNP (n = 192) Significant higher level of serum periostin. 2c
  1. CRSwNP Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, ECRSwNP Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor, GM-CSF Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating, MBP Major basic protein, MPO Myeloperoxidase, VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor, EDN Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, CST2 cystatin SA, CST1 Cystatin SN