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Table 5 Literature review detailing clinical outcomes of adjuvant post-operative therapy of oral tongue carcinoma. This study’s results (under Ianosvky et al) compares favorably with previously published reports

From: The role of brachytherapy for margin control in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

Paper TNM Patient number Follow up, median (months) Treatment OS DSS DFS Local control Complications - Acute Complications - Late
Primary Surgery + Adjuvant BRTx for + ve or Close Margins
Lapeyre et al 2004 [16] T1–4, N0–3, M0a 82 69 (mean) BRTxb ± EBRTx 68% (5 yr) 80% (5 yr)   81% (2 yr)   43%
Grade 1: 12
Grade 2: 17
Grade 3: 8
Ayukawa et al 2007 [10] T1–2, N0, M0 28 72 BRTxb   96% (5 yr) 92% (5 yr)    8% Grade 1 + 2
Petera at al 2015 [13] T1–3, N0, M0 30 40 (mean) BRTx 73% (3 yrs)   65.4% (3 yrs) 85.4% (3 yrs) All Grade 2 1 ORN
2 Soft tissue necrosis
Goineau et al 2015 [9] T1–2, N0–3c 112 80.4 BRTx ± EBRTx neck ± CTx 72% (2 yrs)
56% (5 yrs)
81% (2 yrs)
67% (5 yrs)
  79% (2 yrs)
76% (5 yrs)
All grade ≥ 2 mucositis 12% infection requiring ABx. 22% grade ≥ 2 tongue necrosis requiring surgery.
8% pain requiring narcotics
Ianovski et al 2020 T1–3,N0–3, M0 55 25.4 BRTx ± EBRTx neck ± CTx 75.6% (3 yrs)
59.1% (5 yrs)
82.3% (3 yrs)
68.6% (5 yrs)
74.3% (3 yrs) 86.3% (3 yrs) 1 haemorrhage (Grade 4) 5% grade 2 pain requiring narcotics
Primary BRTx ± ND ± EBRTx ± CTx ± Intralesional CTxd
Urashima et al 2007 [17] T1–2, N0, M0 409   BRTx ± EBRTx ± CTx ± intralesional 72.2–82.3% (5 yrs)   56–64.6% (5 yrs) 86–97% (5 yrs)   19.8% ulcer, 6.6% ORN
Bhalavat et al 2009 [14] T1–2, N0, M0 57 64 BRTx ± EBRTx 67% (5 yrs)   51% (5 yrs) 59.7% (5 yrs) BRTx: 47% grade III mucositis. 1 haemorrhage
BRTx + EBRTx: 60% grade II, 10% grade III mucositis + skin toxicity
14% submental fibrosis
12.3% soft tissue necrosis
2 ORN
Akiyama et al 2012 [18] T1–2, N0, M0 51 45 BRTx 88% (2 yrs)    88% (2 yrs)   9% soft tissue ulcers
9% bone exposure
Matsumoto et al 2013 [19] T1–2, N0, M0 67 58.6 BRTx ± EBRTx ± CTx ± intralesional 88.7% (5 yrs) 92.1% (5 yrs) 76% (5 yrs) 94% (5 yrs)   15% grade 3
+  7% grade 2mucositis
Bansal et al 2016 [20] T1–2, N0, M0 62 53.5 BRTx ± EBRTx/ND to neck 78.8% (5 yrs)   59.3% (5 yrs) 68.2% (5 yrs)   32.9%:
pain +trismus 4.3%, ankyloglossia 7.6%,
ORN 1.1%, induration 13.1%
Primary Surgery ± EBRTx ± CTx
Ling et al 2013 [21] T1–4, N0–3 210 36.6 Sx +/− EBRTx +/− CTx 44.4% (5 yr) 47.7% (5 yr)     
Okuyemi et al 2014 [22] T0–4, N0–3 166   Sx +/− EBRTx +/−? CTx 70.4% (2 yrs)
57.7% (5 yrs)
84.1% (2 yrs)
78% (5 yrs)
    
Mroueh et al 2017 [23] T1–4, N0–3 325 43 (mean) Sx +/− EBRTx +/− CTx 61% (5 yrs) 76% (5 yrs) 65% (5 yrs)    
Liao et all 2017 [24] T1–4, N0–3 8509   Sx +/− RTx +/− CTx 69% (5 yr) 77% (5 yr)     
Zhang et al 2017 [25] T1–4, N0–3 457 39 Sx +/− RTx +/− CTx    68–74.6% (3 yr)
33.1–64.8% (5 yr)α
   
  1. a Oral tongue + Floor of mouth subsites
  2. b Low Dose BRTx
  3. c 70% primary tumours, 15% recurrent, 17% 2nd primary
  4. d variable BRTx protocols: including both Low Dose and High Dose Rate treatments, various isotopes (Ra226, Ir192, Au198, Rn222, Cs137), a wide range of dosage (40–70 Gy) and fractionation methods, catheters placed in single and dual planes. Variable rates of surgical management of the neck, and different CTx medications
  5. α grouped into 3 age groups (Young: ≤30, Middle: 46–59, Older: ≥70 years of age)
  6. OS Overall Survival, DSS Disease Specific Survival, DFS Disease Free Survival, ABx Antibiotics, BRTx Brachytherapy, EBRTx External beam radiotherapy, CTx Chemotherapy, RTx Radiotherapy, ORN Osteoradionecrosis, RTOG Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
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