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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of patients using chronic postoperative opioids

From: Chronic opioid use following surgery for head and neck cancer patients undergoing free flap reconstruction

Clinical Characteristic 3 m + Chronic Postoperative Opioid Use (N = 136) 12 m + Chronic Postoperative Opioid Use (N = 116)
Naïve N = 66 (%) Non-Naïve N = 70 (%) p value Naïve N = 53 (%) Non-Naïve N = 63 (%) p value
Gender    0.3    0.7
 Male 44 (63%) 47 (71%)   38 (72%) 42 (67%)  
 Female 26 (37%) 19 (29%)   15 (28%) 21 (33%)  
Age (years)    0.7    0.6
Mean [SD] 62.3 [12.34] 61.6 [10.79]   62.7 [12.23] 61.6 [10.93]  
Range 31.4–88.2 23.4–82.0   31.8–88.2 23.4–82.0  
Social Habits
 Prior Tobacco 53 (80%) 53 (76%) 0.6 43 (81%) 46 (73%) 0.4
 Prior Alcohol 49 (74%) 49 (70%) 0.3 39 (74%) 43 (68%) 0.5
Clinical Stage    0.08    0.2
 In Situ (Stage 0) 0 (0%) 1 (1%)   0 (0%) 1 (2%)  
 I 7 (11%) 13 (19%)   6 (11%) 13 (21%)  
 II 14 (21%) 8 (11%)   12 (25%) 8 (13%)  
 III 4 (6%) 11 (16%)   3 (6%) 7 (11%)  
 IV 41 (62%) 37 (53%)   31 (59%) 34 (54%)  
Primary Tumour Location    0.03    0.06
 Oral Cavity 59 (89%) 48 (69%)   47 (89%) 43 (68%)  
 Salivary Gland 2 (3%) 7 (10%)   1 (2%) 7 (11%)  
 Paranasal Sinus 2 (3%) 8 (11%)   2 (4%) 7 (11%)  
 Other 3 (5%) 7 (10%)   3 (6%) 6 (10%)  
Free Flap    1    0.9
 Soft Tissue 49 (74%) 52 (74%)   41 (77%) 47 (75%)  
 Bone 13 (20%) 14 (20%)   10 (19%) 13 (21%)  
 Soft Tissue + bone 4 (6%) 4 (6%)   2 (4%) 3 (5%)  
Treatment    0.2    0.4
 Surgery Alone 19 (29%) 29 (41%)   19 (36%) 28 (44%)  
 Surgery + Adjuvant 47 (71%) 41 (59%)   34 (64%) 35 (56%)