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Table 4 Univariate and Multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with chronic postoperative opioid use

From: Chronic opioid use following surgery for head and neck cancer patients undergoing free flap reconstruction

Clinical Characteristic 3 m + Persistent Opioid Use 12 m + Persistent Opioid Use
Odds Ratio [95% CI] p-value Odds Ratio [95% CI] p-value
Univariate Probes
Gender (Ref: Female) 1.59 [0.84–3.02] 0.152 1.15 [0.64–2.08] 0.6
Age (years) (centered at mean) 1.01 [0.99–1.04] 0.153 1.01 [0.99–1.04] 0.168
  ≥ 65 1.04 [0.59–1.85] 0.9 1.04 [0.60–1.81] 0.9
  55–64 1.34 [0.72–2.50] 0.4 1.44 [0.79–2.61] 0.2
  40–54 1.31 [0.65–2.65] 0.5 1.04 [0.54–2.02] 0.9
  <  40 0.25 [0.09–0.69] 0.007 0.29 [0.10–0.84] 0.022
Pre-operative opioid use 4.31 [2.24–8.32] < 0.0001 4.00 [2.19–7.29] < 0.0001
Social Habits
  Prior Tobacco 2.52 [1.34–4.76] 0.004 1.87 [1.01–3.48] 0.048
  Prior Alcohol 1.24 [0.61–2.51] 0.6 1.13 [0.57–2.24] 0.7
Advanced pathologic T-stage (T3/4) 2.27 [1.24–4.15] 0.008 1.21 [0.70–2.12] 0.5
Primary Tumour Location (ref: Oral Cavity)
  Salivary Gland 1.60 [0.42–6.14] 0.5 1.64 [0.48–5.68] 0.4
  Paranasal Sinus 2.66 [0.56–12.57] 0.2 2.47 [0.64–9.44] 0.187
  Other 0.38 [0.16–0.91] 0.03 0.49 [0.20–1.19] 0.1
Free Flap (Ref: Soft Tissue)
  Bone 1.29 [0.61–2.74] 0.5 1.15 [0.57–2.36] 0.7
  Soft Tissue + Bone 0.77 [0.25–2.32] 0.6 0.45 [0.14–1.40] 0.167
Treatment (ref: Sx Alone)
  Sx + Adjuvant 2.52 [1.42–4.48] 0.002 1.30 [0.75–2.24] 0.4
Multivariate Model
Gender (Ref: Female) 2.15 [0.92–5.01] 0.08
Age (years) (centered at mean) 0.99 [0.96–1.03] 0.7 1.00 [0.97–1.03] 0.8
   < 40 0.25 [0.04–1.35] 0.1 0.37 [0.08–1.76] 0.2
Pre-operative opioid use 4.02 [1.85–8.72] < 0.0001 2.34 [1.15–4.74] < 0.0001
Social Habits
  Prior Tobacco 2.80 [1.23–6.38] 0.014 2.34 [1.15–4.74] 0.019
Advanced pathologic T-stage (T3/4) 1.70 [0.79–3.69] 0.2
Primary Tumour Location (ref: Oral Cavity)
  Salivary Gland 0.63 [0.14–2.95] 0.6 1.09 [0.28–4.35] 0.9
  Paranasal Sinus 1.91 [0.27–13.42] 0.5 1.99 [0.42–9.36] 0.4
  Other 0.37 [0.12–1.15] 0.09 0.44 [0.15–1.28] 0.1
Free Flap (Ref: Soft Tissue)
  Bone 1.25 [0.56–2.80] 0.6
  Soft Tissue + Bone 0.33 [0.09–1.19] 0.09
Treatment (ref: Sx Alone)
  Sx + Adjuvant 2.23 [1.03–4.82] 0.042