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Table 4 Malignancy rate of AUS/FLUS thyroid cytopathology reported at various centers

From: Rate of malignancy for thyroid nodules with AUS/FLUS cytopathology in a tertiary care center – a retrospective cohort study

Series Country Period AUS/FLUS Rate % LLE Malignancy Rate % ULE Malignancy Rate %
Present Study Canada 2014–19 18.1 (205/1130) 13.2 (24/182) 25.3% (24/95)
The Bethesda System [11] N/A 2009 ≤7 ~ 5–15 N/A
The Bethesda System [18] N/A 2017 ≤10 ~ 10–30 N/A
Bernstein et al. [19] Canada 2010–13 12.0 37 (86/233) 46 (86/187)
Erivwo & Ghosh [20] Canada 2010–13 5.5 29.8 (54/181) N/A
Oosthuizen et al. [21] Canada 2010–16 N/A N/A 32 (30/93)
Williams et al. [22] Canada 2006–10 18.8 N/A 24.7 (N/A)
Wu et al. [15] United States 2006–08 27.2 N/A 6 (3/51)
Hong et al. [16] South Korea 2011–14 N/A 10.2 (70/687) 72.9 (70/96)
Ho et al. [23] United States 2008–11 8.0 26.6 (144/541) 37.8 (144/381)
Cavalheiro et al. [26] Brazil 2010–14 N/A N/A 15.7 (75/478)
Mileva et al. [27] Republic of Macedonia 2012–16 5.9 N/A 31.2 (35/112)a
Al-Abbadi et al. [28] Saudi-Arabia 2010–14 4.4 N/A 29 (12/42)a
Wong et al. [29] United States 2008–12 9 N/A 33.1 (60/181)
Yaprak Bayrak et al. [30] Turkey 2012–17 4.2 N/A 25.0 (27/108)
Sullivan et al. [31] United States 2003–12 6 17 (56/332) 33 (56/168)
Topaloglu et al. [32] Turkey N/A N/A N/A 23.4 (105/449)
Vanderlaan et al. [33] United States 2005–09 10.9 29.0 (96/331)a 48.2 (96/199)
  1. Abbreviations: AUS/FLUS atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, LLE lower limit estimate, ULE upper limit estimate
  2. aIncludes malignant/benign diagnosis based on histopathology, core needle biopsy, or rFNA