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Table 2 Learning objectives and common task trainers used in OHNS boot camps

From: The Otolaryngology boot camp: a scoping review evaluating commonalities and appraisal for curriculum design and delivery

Study Learning objective/curriculum design Task trainer stations
Washington, USA Group Needs assessment identified common OHNS: airway, bleeding, and other emergencies as high yield topics
Program based on graduated levels of complexity allowing participants to develop a framework to build on acquired skills
Learning modules contained specific objectives and skills to be accomplished containing elements of the ACGME competencies
Overall objectives of the camp were to: recognize and triage typical OHNS emergencies, perform basic emergency management skills, and communicate effectively with the team
Objectives designed to be clear, active, and whenever possible measurable
Bag mask ventilation
Tracheal intubation
Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy
Microlaryngoscopy/bronchoscopy
Epistaxis
Cricothyroidotomy with tracheostomy tube change
PTA simulator
Canadian Group Overall camp objectives are for junior OHNS to perform routine emergency on-call procedures, optimize skills in emergency triage, improve communication and leadership skills in stressful situation
Camp pedagogy was to deliver simulation in a non-threatening, controlled environment to facilitate trainees improving procedural skills with immediate debrief and feedback
PTA
Post Tonsillectomy bleed
Epistaxis
Lateral canthotomy
Surgical airway (Tracheostomy)
Non-surgical airway (bronchoscopy and intubation; pediatric and adult)
UK Group The objective of the program was for participants to understand the management of key topic areas including infectious airway obstruction, epistaxis, post-operative problems, neck trauma, epistaxis, blocked tracheostomy, airway foreign body, and flexible nasal endoscopy
Goal of camp was to improve trainee’s knowledge base and performance in the management principles for emergency OHNS scenarios systematic assessment and management principles taught in advanced life support and advanced trauma life support. Teaching emphasized systematic ‘ABC’ approach. Structured feedback was designed to facilitate learning after performing tasks and simulations
Curriculum designed to cover OHNS emergencies from a generalist perspective
Curriculum utilized the systematic assessment and management principles taught in advanced life support and advanced trauma life support
Basic examination and equipment handling in otology
Ear examination, microsuction, foreign body removal
Epistaxis: nasal cautery, anterior & posterior packs
Flexible nasal endoscopy
Tracheostomy/laryngectomy care
New York, USA Group (NYU) Educational design based on three main principles: defining a set of airway skills for competency, developing educational program designed to address said competencies, and evaluate program using objective educational tools
Program based on a mixture of lecture, video, and simulation-based training sessions incorporating ACGME core competencies for airway skills
Bag mask ventilation
Tracheal intubation
Fiberoptic intubation
Placement of laryngeal mask airway
Rigid bronchoscopy
Jet ventilation
Tracheostomy
Cricothyroidotomy
New York Group (AECM) Goal of camp to introduce junior OHNS residents to core skills and principles that may equip them to safely and effectively manage common clinical scenarios in a low-risk learning environment
Camp objectives designed to: clinical skills, critical thinking, situational awareness, professionalism, and communication
Structed debrief and feedback on performance was administered Immediately following completion of simulation
Soft tissue techniques: suturing and knot tying
Soft tissue techniques: knot tying
Microsurgical technique: myringotomy
Microsurgical technique: laryngeal suturing
Sinus simulator: sinonasal polypectomy
Ecuador Group Goal of program was to introduce three novel simulation teaching modules in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery for capacity building in a low-to middle-income country
To address the lack of structured forms of teaching and educational modules while assess efficacy
No task trainers utilized
California, USA Group Goal of camp was to compare confidence levels before and after the course to evaluate the efficacy of each station
Aimed at improving judgement, technical, and critical thinking skills to prepare residents for high-stakes scenarios they may encounter
Six stations:
 Epistaxis
 Cricothyrotomy/tracheostomy
 Peritonsillar abscess/auricular hematoma
 Nasal bone reduction/zygoma reduction/lateral canthotomy/canalicular trauma and probing
 Local nerve blocks
 Soft tissue reconstruction
  1. ABC: airway, breathing, circulation, ACGME: Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, AECM: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NYU: New York University, OHNS: Otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, PTA: peritonsillar abscess