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Table 3 Comparative analysis of clinicopathological characteristics based on the size of primary tumors

From: Adjuvant Radioactive iodine 131 ablation in papillary microcarcinoma of thyroid: Saudi Arabian experience

Variable Tumor size ≤ 0.5 cm N (%) Tumor size > 0.5 cm N (%) P value
 Total patients 161/326 (49.4) 165/326 (50.6) -
Age (years) 36.7 (8–71) 47.8 (8–76)  
 ≤45 years 107 (66.5) 94 (56.9) 0.034
 ≥45 years 54 (33.5) 71 (43.1)  
Gender
 Female 139 (86.4) 132 (80.0) 0.08
 Male 22 (13.6) 33 (20.0)  
Mean size (cm) 0.38 (0.1–0.5) 0.68 (0.6–1.0) <0.001
Histopathologic variants
 Classic 126 (78.2) 139 (84.3)  
 Follicular 26 (16.2) 14 (8.5)  
 Hurthle cell 4 (2.5) 4 (2.4) 0.023
 Tall cell 4 (2.5) 7 (4.3)  
 Sclerosing 1 (0.6) -  
Multifocal
 Yes 36 (22.4) 89 (53.9)  
 No 125 (77.6) 76 (46.1) <0.001
ETE
 Yes 16 (9.9) 46 (27.9) <0.001
 No 145 (90.1) 119 (72.1)  
LVSI
 Yes 14 (8.7) 41 (24.9) <0.001
 No 147 (91.3) 124 (75.1)  
Surgical margins
 Positive 5 (3.1) 30 (18.2)  
 Negative 156 (96.9) 135 (81.8) <0.001
Background thyroid tissue
 Normal 60 (37.3) 38 (23.0)  
 Multi-nodular goiter 48 (29.8) 58 (35.2)  
 Lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimotos’ thyroiditis 53 (32.9) 69 (41.8) 0.05
Lymph node metastasis
 Yes 15 (9.3) 27 (16.4)  
 No 146 (90.7) 138 (83.6) <0.001
RAI ablation
 Yes 50 (31.1) 132 (67.3) <0.001
 No 111 (68.9) 22 (13.3)  
Recurrences
 Locoregional 4 (2.5) 9 (5.5)  
 Thyroid bed 1/4 2/9  
 Lymph nodes 3/4 7/9 <0.001
 Distant 2 (1.3) 8 (4.9)  
 Lungs 2 7/8  
 Bone - 1/8  
  1. I-131 radioactive iodine 131, N number, ETE extra-thyroidal extension, LVSI lymphovascular space invasion, RAI radioactive iodine