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Table 2 Pre-and post-treatment VFSS outcome measures. All tests performed with paired t-tests

From: Improved symptomatic, functional, and fluoroscopic outcomes following serial “series of three” double-balloon dilation for cricopharyngeus muscle dysfunction

Parameter n Pre-treatment (+/− SD) Post-treatment (+/− SD) p value
PESAP opening (cm) 15 1.05 (0.34) 1.48 (0.41) 0.0003
PESL opening (cm) 17 0.58 (0.18) 0.76 (0.30) 0.018
Pharyngeal constriction ratio 13 0.49 (0.37) 0.24 (0.15) 0.015
Pharyngeal area (cm2) 12 9.45 (3.62) 9.52 (3.96) 0.91
  1. PESAP upper esophageal sphincter in anterior-posterior view, PESL upper esophageal opening in lateral view