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Table 2 Multivariate regression analysis for overall survival (OS) in patients taking metformin at the time of diagnosis

From: Does metformin usage improve survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? A population-based study

Covariate Category Comparator P-value Hazard Ratio 95% CI
Age
  70–74 65–69 0.2574 1.152 0.902–1.471
75–79   <.0001 1.879 1.485–2.379
80–84   <.0001 2.309 1.776–3.001
85–90   < 0.001 2.257 1.545–3.298
= > 90   <.0001 4.457 2.614–7.599
Gender
  Male Female 0.2969 1.124 0.903–1.399
Treatment type
  CRT+/−surgery RT +/− surgery 0.6839 1.053 0.821–1.350
Surgery+/−RT/CRT   0.7389 1.034 0.851–1.256
Elixhauser Comorbidity Index Score
  1 0 0.1105 1.194 0.960–1.484
2   0.0618 1.298 0.987–1.708
3+   <.0001 1.902 1.524–2.375
Primary site
  Hypopharynx Glottic larynx <.0001 2.933 2.336–3.683
Nasopharynx   0.0101 1.679 1.131–2.492
Supraglottic larynx   <.0001 2.296 1.867–2.825
Metformin use
  Control (no metformin exposure) Case (metformin use at time of diagnosis) 0.4314 1.104 0.863–1.413
  1. CI confidence interval, RT radiation therapy, CRT concurrent chemoradiation therapy