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Table 3 Multivariate regression analysis for disease specific survival (DSS) in patients taking metformin at time of diagnosis

From: Does metformin usage improve survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma? A population-based study

Covariate Category Comparator P-value Hazard Ratio 95% CI
Age
  70–74 65–69 0.8138 0.958 0.673–1.364
75–79   0.0035 1.636 1.175–2.277
80–84   0.0067 1.726 1.163–2.561
85–90   0.0450 1.793 1.013–3.175
= > 90   0.0275 2.832 1.122–7.148
Gender
  Male Female 0.1428 1.283 0.919–1.791
Treatment type
  CRT+/−surgery RT +/− surgery 0.2510 1.218 0.870–1.704
Surgery+/−RT/CRT   0.1351 1.247 0.933–1.667
Elixhauser Comorbidity Index Score
  1 0 0.8172 1.040 0.743–1.457
2   0.3511 1.218 0.805–1.842
3+   0.0078 1.582 1.128–2.218
Primary site
  Hypopharynx Glottic larynx <.0001 4.488 3.269–6.162
Nasopharynx   < 0.001 2.957 1.757–4.977
Supraglottic larynx   <.0001 2.993 2.189–4.093
Metformin use
  Control (no metformin exposure) Case (metformin use at time of diagnosis) 0.9980 1.000 0.695–1.440
  1. CI confidence interval, RT radiation therapy, CRT concurrent chemoradiation therapy