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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies on nasal endoscopy

From: Clinical evidence based review and recommendations of aerosol generating medical procedures in otolaryngology – head and neck surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic

Author, yearStudy DesignLevel of EvidenceSubjects (n)Study GroupsStudy outcomesConclusionDirectness of evidence
Workman et al. 2020 [13]Experimental studyN/AN/ACadavers1. Visual inspection of number of fluorescein droplets generated by nasal endoscopy, endonasal surgery with and without microdebrider and high-speed drill.
2. Visual inspection of number of fluorescein droplets, generated by atomizer placed posterior to the internal valve (droplet size 30-100um) to simulate cough/sneeze.
1. Nasal endoscopy and cold non-powered endonasal procedures do not exhibit any features of AGMPs and has a lower risk of aerosol generation.
2. Droplet spread up to 66 cm from the nare, with peak density around 30 cm. (Modified) surgical masks were able to reduce the droplet spread.
  1. AGMP aerosol generating medical procedure