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Table 1 Characteristics of patients according to swallowing ability according to SASS

From: The prospective evaluation and risk factors of dysphagia after surgery in patients with oral cancer

Characteristics Swallowing ability P value
  Good
n (%)
Poor
n (%)
 
Number of patients 41 (64.1) 23 (35.9)  
Sex
 Male 20 (48.8) 13 (56.5) 0.425 α
 Female 21 (51.2) 10 (43.5)  
Age
 Range (years) 24–82 15–88  
 Mean ± SD 66.4 ± 12.7 67.7 ± 15.2 0.485 β
Smoking history
 No 28 (68.3) 12 (52.2) 0.282 α
 Yes 13 (31.7) 11 (47.8)  
Alcohol drinking
 No 24 (58.5) 12 (52.2) 0.793 α
 Yes 17 (41.5) 11 (47.8)  
Performance status
 0 36 (87.8) 17 (73.9) 0.182 α
 1 5 (12.2) 6 (26.1)  
ASA Physical Status Classification
 1 7 (17.1) 5 (21.7) 0.742 α
 2 34 (82.9) 18 (78.3)  
BMI
 Range (kg/m2) 16.0–32.1 14.5–27.2  
 Mean ± SD 22.9 ± 3.9 21.1 ± 3.3 0.109 β
Body weight on hospital discharge
 Range (kg/m2) 32.5.0–81.0 35.2–69.3  
 Mean ± SD 55.6 ± 12.4 50.2 ± 8.3 0.084 β
Total protein
 Range (g/dl) 6.1–8.1 6.4–8.1  
 Mean ± SD 7.0 ± 0.5 7.2 ± 0.5 0.389 β
Albumin
 Range (g/dl) 3.0–4.8 3.3–5.0  
 Mean ± SD 4.2 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.4 0.236 β
Subsite
 Tongue 13 (31.7) 6 (26.1) 0.878 γ
 Buccal mucosa 5 (12.2) 3 (13.0)  
 Floor of the mouth 3 (7.3) 2 (8.7)  
 Upper gingiva 6 (14.6) 3 (13.0)  
 Lower gingiva 12 (29.3) 9 (39.1)  
 Other 2 (4.9) 0 (0)  
 Tongue 13 (31.7) 6 (26.1) 0.250 α
 Others 28 (68.3) 17 (73.9)  
T stage
 1 1 (2.4) 0 (0) < 0.001 * γ
 2 30 (73.2) 6 (26.1)  
 3 3 (7.3) 9 (39.1)  
 4a/b 7 (17.1) 8 (34.8)  
 1, 2 31 (75.6) 6 (26.1) < 0.001 * α
 3, 4 10 (24.4) 17 (73.9)  
N stage
 0 30 (73.2) 10 (43.5) 0.057 γ
 1 6 (14.6) 6 (26.1)  
 2b 5 (12.2) 5 (21.7)  
 2c 0 2 (8.7)  
 0 30 (73.2) 10 (43.5) 0.031 * α
 1, 2 11 (26.8) 13 (56.5)  
Bilateral neck dissection
 No 38 (92.7) 14 (60.9) 0.005 * α
 Yes 3 (7.3) 9 (39.1)  
Type of neck dissection
 Selective neck dissection 34 (82.9) 12 (52.2) 0.019 * α
 Modified radical neck dissection 7 (17.1) 11 (47.8)  
Resection of unilateral/bilateral suprahyoid muscles
 No 25 (61.0) 6 (26.1) 0.010 * α
 Yes 16 (39.0) 17 (73.9)  
 No 25 (61.0) 6 (26.1) 0.019 * γ
 Resection of unilateral suprahyoid muscles 14 (34.1) 13 (56.5)  
 Resection of bilateral suprahyoid muscles 2 (4.9) 4 (17.4)  
Types of reconstruction flap
 Forearm 29 (70.7) 11 (47.8) 0.320 γ
 Rectus abdominis 6 (14.6) 7 (30.4)  
 Fibular 5 (12.2) 4 (17.4)  
 Pectoral major musculocutaneous 1 (2.4) 1 (4.3)  
 Radial forearm 29 (70.7) 11 (47.8) 0.106 α
 Others 12 (29.3) 12 (52.2)  
Blood loss
 Range (ml) 160–2358 180–2345  
 Mean ± SD 683.7 ± 467.3 695.5 ± 459.6 0.845 β
Operation time
 Range (min) 345–917 517–832  
 Mean ± SD 646.1 ± 120.7 706.7 ± 80.5 0.035 * β
Blood transfusion
 No 32 (78.0) 13 (56.5) 0.091 α
 Yes 9 (22.0) 10 (43.5)  
Surgical site infection
 No 31 (75.6) 19 (82.6) 0.754 α
 Yes 10 (24.4) 4 (17.4)  
Postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy
 No 31 (75.6) 13 (56.5) 0.161 α
 Yes 10 (24.4) 10 (43.5)  
  1. α: Fisher’s exact test; β: Mann–Whitney U test; γ: Chi-squared test. * P < 0.05
  2. The patients were classified into two groups according to SASS scores at 3 months after treatment as follows: poor (MTF score ≤ 9 points) or good (MTF score 10–15 points)