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Table 1 Presenting signs and symptoms of choanal atresia

From: A national study of choanal atresia in tertiary care centers in Canada – part I: clinical presentation

Symptom Category Unilateral CA No. (%) Bilateral CA No. (%) Total No. (%)
Rhinorrhea Yes 92 (92.0) 36 (65.5) 128 (82.6)
No 8 (8.0) 19 (34.5) 27 (17.4)
 If yes, predominant side Right 55/92 (59.9) 2/36 (5.6) 57/128 (44.5)
Left 27/92 (29.3) 1/36 (2.8) 28/128 (21.9)
Both 5/92 (5.4) 30/36 (83.3) 35/128 (27.3)
Unknown 5/92 (5.4) 3/36 (8.3) 8/128 (6.3)
Feeding difficulties Yes 21 (24.7) 45 (68.2) 66 (43.7)
No 64 (75.3) 21 (31.8) 85 (56.3)
Respiratory Distress Yes 16 (18.0) 80 (96.4) 96 (55.8)
No 73 (82.0) 3 (3.6) 76 (44.2)
 If yes, intubation required Yes 5/16 (31.2) 60/80 (75.0) 65/96 (67.7)
No 7/16 (43.8) 14/80 (17.5) 21/96 (21.9)
Unknown 4/16 (25.0) 6/80 (7.5) 10/96 (10.4)
Unable to pass suction catheter Yes 35 (77.8) 52 (91.2) 87 (85.3)
No 10 (22.2) 5 (8.8) 15 (14.7)
 If yes, side Right 21/35 (60.0) 1/52 (1.9) 22/87 (25.3)
Left 12/35 (34.3) 0/52 (0) 12/87 (13.8)
Both 2/35 (5.7) 49/52 (94.2) 51/87 (58.6)
Unknown 0/35 (0) 2/52 (3.9) 2/87 (2.3)
CT Scan Identifying CA Yes 90 (79.6) 63 (85.1) 153 (81.8)
No 23 (20.4) 11 (14.9) 34 (18.2)