Skip to main content

Table 1 Mean rate of use of each didactic activity before and during the pandemic

From: Online residency training during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey of otolaryngology head and neck surgery program directors

Category Teaching activity Mean score (SEM)
Before During
(1) Lectures Resident presentation 4.9 (0.1) 4.5 (0.3)
 In-person 9.5 (0.3) 0.6 (0.5)*
 Online 0.3 (0.3) 8.3 (0.7)*
In house lectures 5.3 (0.2) 3.9 (0.5)*,
 In-person 9.8 (0.2) 0.5 (0.5)*
 Online 0.8 (0.3) 7.4 (1.2)*
Online courses made by other programs/universities 0.5 (0.3) 4.0 (0.8)*
American online otolaryngology consortia 0.1 (0.1) 2.8 (1.0)*
Lectures total 3.5 (0.1) 3.9 (0.3)
(2) Teaching activities Journal club 3.9 (0.5) 2.6 (0.7)
 In-person 7.7 (0.9) 0.0 (0.0)*
 Online 0.0 (0.0) 5.2 (1.4)*
Ethical issues related discussion 3.5 (0.5) 3.5 (0.5)
 In-person 6.6 (0.9) 0.9 (0.6)*
 Online 0.3 (0.2) 6.1 (1.0)*
Tumor boards and other interdisciplinary clinics 4.5 (0.4) 3.7 (0.5)
 In-person 8.5 (0.8) 0.4 (0.4)*
 Online 0.5 (0.5) 7.0 (1.1)*
Morbidity and mortality rounds 5.3 (0.6) 4.6 (0.7)
 In-person 9.0 (0.6) 2.4 (1.1)*
 Online 1.5 (1.0) 6.9 (1.0)*
Teaching activity total 4.3 (0.4) 3.6 (0.4)*
(3) Surgical simulation Cadaveric dissection laboratory 3.1 (0.5) 1.7 (0.6)*,
 In-person 5.9 (0.9) 2.8 (1.1)*
 Online 0.3 (0.2) 0.5 (0.3)
Computer-based simulators§ 1.1 (0.5) 1.1 (0.5)
 In-person 1.0 (0.5) 0.7 (0.5)
 Online 1.3 (0.6) 1.5 (0.5)
Synthetic simulators 3.2 (0.8) 1.9 (0.7)
  Simulation total 2.3 (0.3) 1.5 (0.4)*
  Total in-person 6.8 (0.4) 1.1 (0.3)*
  Total online 0.5 (0.2) 5.0 (0.5)*
  Total in-person and online 3.5 (0.2) 3.1 (0.3)*
  1. *p < 0.05 compared to pre-COVID scores
  2. Composite measures of activities
  3. E.g.: CanMEDS, patient security, communication
  4. §E.g.: Virtual reality simulators
  5. E.g.: Mannequins, 3D printed simulators
  6. Italics: Single measures directly questioned in the survey
  7. Bold: Combined measures (mean) of in-person and online format, or of category of activities