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Table 1 Comparison of technical characteristics and initial result of different approaches for secondary TEP

From: How I do it: modified Lichtenberger-Brown tracheoesophageal puncture procedure

Author n Visualization at TEP site via Determination of TEP position Puncturing tool Direction of puncture Procedure related complications
Singer [1] 60 Rigid EsS Transillumination & palpation Custom troacar Tr → Es None
Brown [8]  > 160 Not required Palpation Scalpel Tr → Es None
Schipper [7] 12 Rigid EsS No info Dedicated troacar Es → Tr None
Lichtenberger [2] 3 Surgical LS Inspection & palpation Needle + metal cone Es → Tr None
Shaw [9] 4 Surgical LS Transillumination KTP laser Es → Tr None
LeBert [3] 39 Flexible EsS Transillumination Scalpel
No. 11
Tr → Es None
Pagedar [6] 6 Rigid EsS Transillumination Needle
15-gauge
Tr → Es None
Damrose [5] 34 Rigid or flexible EsS Transillumination & palpation Needle
16-gauge
Tr → Es 1/34 retropharyngeal abscess, attributable to the rigid EsS
  1. n number of patients, EsS esophagoscope, LS laryngoscope, Es esophagus, Tr trachea